En: Grand Lodge of Denmark
Grandlodge of Denmark
Grand Lodge of Denmark arose initially from two previous systems, "Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia" and "The Danish Grand Orient". Both have their origins in early 1920, but the roots are much older. The historical roots of these formations are extremely complex, but in Denmark they has been collected in one person, Carl William Hansen, called Ben Kadósh (1872-1936).
In the earliest history is also seen influences from Martinist Order, AMORC, Le Droit Humaines, Ordo Templi Orientis, Fraternitas Lusis Hermitica, Ordo Illuminatorum, Swedenborg Rites, the Gnostic Church, French occultism and many other sources. It was a general desire by both systems (Grand Orient and the Danish Grand Orient), finding a number of common elements so that the systems could be brought together. Through the magazine "Masonic Journal" (Frimurertidene), published this year, it succeeded the High Degree mason and psychologist Grunddal Sjallung (1895-1976) 14. April 1929 to impose the idea of the Grand Lodge of Denmark (Storlogen af Danmark). He was evidently much supported from, among other, manufacturers Max Müllertz (dead 1940) and magazine press printer Einar Wilhelm Petersen, who were both High Degree masons.
On April 14. 1929 the Grand Lodge of Denmark was constituted with the Worshipfull Master Max Müllertz and Great Secretary Grunddal Sjallung in the lead. The Constitution is partly borrowed from English Freemasonry. Ritual used was called "Ritus Hauniensis" (The Copenhagen rites), which borrows from French, English and German sources and is basically identified with York Rite.
The original lodges under the Grand Lodge of Denmark were:
- 01. Lyset til de ni hjerter (The light of the nine hearts)
- 02. Janus Vesta
- 03. Tre Løver (Tre LøverThree Lions)
- 04. Pax Interna
- 05. De To Søjler (The Two Columns)
- 06. De Tre Lys (The Three Candles)
- 07. Den Flammende Stjerne (The Flaming Star)
- 08. Den Kubiske Sten (The Cubic Stone)
- 09. Akacien (Acacia)
- 10. Danevirke
- 11. Phønix (Phoenix)
- 12. De Tre Hamre (The Three Hammers)
- 13. De Tre Søjler (The Three Columns)
- 14. Pentalpha
- 15. Stella Nova
- 16. Den Gyldne Cirkel (The Golden Circle)
Of the original Loges only the Three Hammers (No. 15), still operates under the Grand Lodge of Denmark. Several of the original Loges can be found today at The Masonic Guild of Old Free and Accepted masons, but are no longer linked to the Grand Lodge of Denmark.
Freemasonry many historical details makes it hard to make a sober depiction of the historical development of the many rites and systems. Grand Lodge of Denmark began its day in Smallegade 33, Copenhagen (København), in what is today known as Old Masonic Guild of Free and Accepted masons.
Through democratic elections in 1960 the Masonic guild members affiliated with, and subjugate the Danish Masonic Order, while other members of this event chose to move the Grand Lodge of Denmark to a different location and continue the original work.
All in accordance with the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Denmark. The differences between the Danish Masonic Order, Masonic Guild of Free and Accepted masons and the Grand Lodge of Denmark is so far - and seen to historical / academic eyes - marginal, but some items separate the systems.
The Danish Masonic Order works under a High Degree System which they say is based on Christianity, while their first three degrees is "the blue degrees" under supervision of the Danish Masonic Order.
Grand Lodge of Denmark is working with "the blue degrees" and "Mark Master", but are not supervised by the Danish Masonic Order. Inside the Grand Lodge of Denmark is also a chapter with the Royal Arch degrees.
An independent organisation, has historical ties to members of the Grand Lodge of Denmark. Grand Orient is working with Higher Degrees from "The Scottish Rite" and differs from both the Danish Masonic Order and the Grand Lodge of Denmark. To participate in the Scottish Rite from Grandlodge of Denmark, the candidate shall be Master Mason.
- 1919 - Rose Cross Knights start working in Denmark for the first time since 1909. The origins of this rite, starts in the Nordic Order of Good Templars, where it was a general desire among some members to begin working with freemasonry. To understand this desire, it is essential to understand that Freemasonry in Denmark at this time is exclusively represented by The Danish National Masonic Order, which works under the Swedish system.
- The Swedish system, which only exists in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland - and partly in Finland, is regarded as something of a depart within Freemasonry. Det 6. The sixth Chapters in The Danish Masonic Order constitution says explicitly that only Christian Gandlodge of Denmark members may be included. This is contrary to most international Masonic Systems which here takes members of all faiths.
- It could of course not be accepted by those who had other, more esoteric interests. A committee was formed before the 1919. Here was A.A.Jensen (dead before 1926) has been elected as leader. He was assisted by producer Max Müllertz, journalist Axel Meyer, K.P.Knudsen and others.
- After negotiations, the committee decided to buy the remnants of an order called Rose Crusader Order which was founded in 1895. However, it had stopped its activities in 1905 (perhaps some years later).
- The former Master A.H.Rosendal were contacted and the committee bought the rites and the constitution from him. This gave them access to the first 18 degrees in the Scottish system. More Rose Cross chapters was founded, and these form in the 1922 Great Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia, which at the formation is recognized by the Grand Lodge of France. A patent of uncertain origin, entitling them to work through the eighteenth degree under the Old and Accepted Scottish rite.
- 1921 - On 22. April is issued a patent from Grand Orient pour la France to the Grand Orient of Denmark. Later, on the 17. June, one more patent is issued and confers the right to work in all 33 degrees in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
- 1921 - On 22. June is Great Orient of Denmark member of the Federation Maconnique International.
- 1921 - The 30. September is issued a 33 degree patent to Carl William Hansen "Kadosh" by Jean (Joanny) Bricaud in Lyon, it is said, under System Cerneau in New York and simultaneously is acquired a 96. Degree Patent for Misraim-Memphis rite of the famous and infamous war correspondent, an opera singer and police spy Carl Albert Theodor Reuss (Reusz). C.A.T. Reuss had at that time lost the right he had been awarded by the Sovereign Grand Master John Yarker in England, to form these rites in other countries. John Yarker died the 20.marts 1913.
- 1921 - The 31. July acquiring the group which has formed Great Orient of Denmark and Iceland (Scandinavia) a patent issued by a now unknown Loge in Lyon after the Cerneau Systemj. This organisation seeks to become an independent Grand Orient for the entire Scandinavia incl. Finland. Finland. The result was that the Mother Loge removes its support.
- 1922 - Purchase of the property Smallegade 33, Copenhagen (København) for futureLodge. The property passes, however to the Danish Masonic Order at the "divorce" in 1960.
- 1923 - The Martinist Lodge Sphinx is established with patent from Grand Orient de la Vraie a Haute Maconnerie Esoreterique du France. Gandlodge of Denmark - the History
- 1924 - The 11. June the Danish Grand Orient of Old Free & Accepted Masons is formed, on the ruins of the Lodge Sphinx, with the help from an Italian 33 degree patent from Grande Oriente Italiano, signed by Eduardo Frosini. This patent claimes the right to work after Morin System. Mr. Frosini was a respected Freemason in his homeland a national delegate for a number of systems. Unfortunately, most information about Frosini are lost, as the Italian fascists later struck down hard on all masons. Many documents have thus disappeared.
- 1929 - The 14. April the Grand Lodge of Denmark G F & A M (Old Free & Accepted Masons) created and constituted by the Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia and the Danish Grand Orient of G F & A M. Grand Lodge of Denmark express at its formation, to be the only true spiritual successor to the original English Provincial Grand Lodge, because the Grand Lodge of Denmark will work under THE PURE OLD FREEMASONRY, as declared by the Grand Lodge of England. And the only Grand Lodge working entirely after the Old Landmarks as they are called by the Grand Lodge of England and Scotland.
- Brethren from the Grand Lodge shall join the Grand Lodge of France, by Brother J. Marechal that promise to assist at a reconstitution. At the same time an appropriate number High Degree brethren are appointed, to continuous working in Great Orient.
- 1930 - The 2. October all brothers under the Grand Lodge of Denmark of G F & A M join a fusion of Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia and the Danish Grand Orient of G F & A M, the Masonic the Order of the Ancient accepted Scottish Rite in Denmark and Iceland, led by the Supreme Council of 33 degree for Danmark and Island of GF & A M. The Supreme Council consists of 6 brothers from Grand Orient Denmark of G F & A M and 3 brothers from the Danish Grand Orient. All the brothers in the two systems signed a declaration on the association. At the same time is developed plans for the reconstitution of the Grand Lodge of Denmark (reconstitution was felt was necessary as the above Grand Orients regularity was debatable).
- The then General Secretary and later Deputy Grand Commander brother J. Marechal in Grand Orient du France, promised the "association" to contribute in the reconstitution. The association chooses finally to be called "Grand Orient of Denmark & Scan Scandinavia of Old Free & Accepted Masons" (of the 33 degree of the Old Accepted Scottish rite).
- 1931 - The 15. November the two Grand Orients re-constitute Grand Lodge of Denmark to work in the Blue Degrees. At the same time the Grand Orients mentioned declining to work in the Blue Degrees. At the inaugural meeting is formed the United Instruction Lodge Adoniram til De Tre Tau nr. 0 (Adoniram to The Three Tau # 0).
- It is declared that Grandlodge of Denmark will work in all Blue Degrees plus Royal Arch and Mark Mason. This is however first a reality on 11. April 1989. Simultaneously a proclamation is broadcasted to all Grand Lodges in the world that the Grandlodge of Denmark work for and, and in strict accordance with the United Grand Lodge of England's basic principles as they are pronounced the 4. September 1930. Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia of G F & A M broadcast a proclamation announcing its formation basis and that it works completely by and in accordance with detailed principles for the G & A (Old & Accepted) Scottish Rite, which was set by the Confederation of the highest council in Lausanne 22. September 1875.
- Later that year the necessary number of brothers was admitted respectively in the 18. and 30. Degree under the Supreme Council of France. The 21. March 1932 is created a Rose Croix chapter (18. degree) Rosendal and Aroepaget (30. degree) Nordlyset (Northern Light - later Rasmus Rask to the Northern Lights).
- The following 9 brothers received 33. degree from the Supreme Council of France: Max Müllertz, Carl Gunnerman, Grunddal Sjallung, O.H. Frankild, Alfred Jensen, Einar Wilhelm Petersen, A.W. Heinricy, Frands Tarp and C. Damgaard. The same nine brothers was from the Supreme Council of France appointed to govern all the established Chapters in Denmark. (It only requires one brother of 33. degree, to create a Grand Orient, but the Grand Orient of Denmark had 9 of these).
- France insisted that all degree awards should be approved by their Supreme Council until the re-constitution were officially recognized. At the time, everybody wanted and hoped of an official recognition from the Confederacy in 1934 at a conference in Cuba. They wanted at the time, to reconstitute the Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia by help from a foreign Supreme Council, despite the fact that after the Confederate decision on the maintenance and assertion of the original Great Constitutional dated 1. May 1786, now in all ways possessed the right to establish a regular Supreme Council of Denmark. Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of France brother R. Raymond gave the grounds that this could not be done because the Supreme Council in Washington, led by brother Cowles could not recognize the Danish Supreme Council. They had recognized the Danish Masonic Order (the Swedish system, where Christian rites have been created by Eckleff!), and therefore wanted this Grand Lodge to participate in the creation of a Supreme Council in Denmark.
- 1931 - Broadcast the Grand Orient of Denmark of G F & A M and the Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia, a declaration that they work completely after respectively the United Grand Lodge of England's principles as laid down in 1930 and in according to the Confederacy of Supreme council's fixed Landmarks, laid down 22. September 1875. September 1875. They now form themselves a Grand Lodge named Stororienten af Denmark og Norden af G F & A M (Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia of A F & A M), giving up trying to have France to assist in reconstitution of a Grand Lodge in Denmark.
- This is entirely consistent with the acquired right and under Confederation of the Supreme Council's resolution of 14. June 1907 on the formation of a Grand Lodge and a Supreme Council in a country where there is no such thing.
- 1932 - Formed a Danish group of Universala Framasone Ligo, which is an association of brothers and sisters throughout the world, regardless of which system or Grand Lodge they belong. The group do not have any rituals to work in.
- 1932 - The 25.May, br. Raymond in a letter definitively rejecting the Great Orient of France could contribute to the reconstitution of a Supreme Council in Denmark.
- The rest of the year 1937 consisted mostly of internal strife, due to ill speaking of br. Grunddal Sjallung, through false minutes to get him expelled from the Supreme Council of France and Denmark. The whole matter is resolved by an internal tribunal where the context was for the day and with the effect that the Danish brothers who had participated in the conspiracy were excluded, for respectively 3 - and 5 years. This do not prevented, however, that the negative brothers continued attacking br. Grunddal Sjallung via France. This was obviously not promoting the further cooperation between Denmark and France.
- 21. November 1932 it is abandoned to ask for help outside Denmark for reconstitution, and it is decided to use the acquired right, in accordance to Storkonstitutionen (Grand Constitution) of 1. maj 1789, to even setting up a Supreme Council of 33. grad. Degree. This takes place under the leadership of G.S.I.K. Grunddal Sjallung. From this date is any doubt about Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia regularity indifferent, and the Grand Lodge of Denmark of G F & A M's regularity ensured, as far that more than the required number of brothers had been properly initiated into the 33. grad in a regular Great Orient of the 33. degree - In the Grand Orient of France and more of the same brothers also posses the 33. degree from Grand Orient of Hamburg. By this they fully possessed the right to form a Supreme Council in Denmark by themselves.
- 1938 - The Grand Lodge of Denmark has 400 members, and the Grand Lodge receives a letter from Grand Lodge of France (Grand Orient de France) which says: "To respond to a request by br. Max Müllertz ... ... we'd confirm that the Grand Lodge of France is fully aware of the conditions under which you have constituted Your obedience which has been regarded as regular and as we exchanged friendship guarantees during the elapsed time since 1932 ...
- 1958 - The 24. June is adopted the Constitution of the Supreme Council of 33. degree. Among other topics it declare that the Supreme Council's rules adopted unanimously at the first International Congress in Lausanne 14. June 1907, is to be fol followed in full.
- 1960 - A majority of the members of the Grand Lodge of Denmark choose, to work under the supervision of the Danish Masonic Order (the Swedish system) in order to achieve a personal recognition from the Grand Lodge of England.
- In the agreement, the brothers from the Grand Lodge of Denmark accept:
- § 2: The Danish National Masonic Order Most Wise Master and Supreme ruler exercises his authority as a guiding Master of Freemasonry (the first three degrees) through the Guild Council.
- § 8: Brothers related Masonic guild should not belong to other High Degree Systems than The Danish Masonic Order (the Swedish High Degrees) and must terminate a possible membership.
- The brothers who affiliate from the Grand Lodge of Denmark to the Danish Masonic Order, retained the right, however, continues to use the same rituals as Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Denmark, excluding however Mark Master degree and the Royal Arch, which at the time was not finally incorporated in Grand Lodge of Denmark rituals. Partly because Mark Master degree is not processed in the Swedish system and partly because the Royal Arch is considered by the Danish Masonic Order as belonging to their Chapter.
- Members of the Grand Lodge of Denmark can freely choose which Chapters or other systems they may want to participate in. And as a minority found the association in violation of the Old Landmarks, as is stated by the Grand Lodge of England and Scotland and the Universal Freemasonry, they decide to maintain the Grand Lodge of Denmark as an independent Grand Lodge.
- 1961 - 1. January the agreement with the Danish Masonic Order takes effect.
- 1963 - The Danish Order of Freemasons raise a case to the Danish Supreme Court attorney H. Møring-Andersen on the use of the name of the Grand Lodge of Denmark of G F & A M. The case ends with a settlement where both Grand Lodges may use the name. (As part of the first agreement with the Danish Masonic Order, the brothers who Affiliate Danish Order of Freemasons, also waived the right to use the name)
- 1971 - Grand Lodge of Denmark becomes a member of the Strasbourg-union C.L.I.P.S.A.S. which is a association of regular Grand Lodges that are mutually recognizing each other. Member loges are primarily evolved from the Grand Orient of France (Grand Orient de France).
- 1976 - Universala Framasone Ligo world congress is held in Copenhagen.
- 1981 - Held in Copenhagen the 50th anniversary of the reconstitution of the Grand Lodge of Denmark.
- 1983 - Grand Lodge of Denmark to establish contact with its foreign co-operators after many years of isolation.
- 1985 - The Grand Lodge of Denmark is recognized by the Grand Lodge of Sao Paulo, which is recognized by the Grand Lodge of England. A Danish friendship guarantor of the Great Orient appointed by the Grand Lodge of Sao Paulo.
- 1989 - The 11. April the first Royal Arch Chapter is constituted called "Zerubbabel of Lucem Scientiae" under the Grand Lodge of Denmark and in accordance with Grand Lodge of England's constitution.
- At the same time recognized Mark Master (MM) and Mark Master Mason (MMM) degree as a part of the second Degree. This is done in accordance with an established committee announcement from the Grand Lodge of England in 1856, that MM- and MMM-Freemasonry is not a part of Royal Arch - freemasonry and that it is not essential for the Blue Degrees. There was nothing contradictory in it, and nothing that violated the universality of Freemasonry, and it should be viewed as a beautiful addition to the 2. Degree.
- This statement was approved by the Grand Lodge of England which officially stated that MM- and MMM-degrees not to be contrary to the Old Landmarks, and that these degrees are a supplement to Guilt Freemasonry, and as a consequence they must be given to all brothers in regular lodges etc. etc. ...with the usual approvals.
- The actual introduction was later rejected in England, but finally adopted by the Grand Lodge of Denmark 11. april 1989. April 1989. Mark Degree and the Royal Arch (re) introduction occur as the result of collaboration between Grand Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia of G F & A M and the Grand Lodge of Denmark, since the degrees previously belonged to the Grand Orient auspices. Moreover a brother under the Grand Lodge of England, with the skills acquired from there, assisted at (re) introduction.
- 1989 - The 23. April the female Lodge Freja in Copenhagen was established as the visible result of collaboration which started in C.L.I.P.S.A.S. between the Grand Lodge of Denmark and the Grande Loge Féminine de Belgique.
- 1993 - The Danish Masonic Order (Swedish and Christian system) has approx. 9000 members in Denmark and represents approx. 1% of worlds Freemasonry.
- 1993 - Both the Great Orient of Denmark and Scandinavia of G F & A M and the Grand Lodge of Denmark of G F & A M, working well, albeit under limited circumstances and with the availability of many new brothers. Grand Lodge of Denmark is still the only Grand Lodge in Denmark that fully claim and maintain the Old Landmarks, as it is announced by the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
- English Grand Lodges only recognize one Grand Lodge in each country, that's one of the reasons that Grand Lodge of Denmark has not yet gained recognition from the English branch of Freemasonry, and do not want it if it can only be at the expense of other Grand Lodges in corporation.
- Grand Lodge of Denmark of G F & A M (English rite) and the Grand Orient of Denmark & Scandinavia (The Supreme Council, Scottish rite) still have a close collaboration and shared premises in Copenhagen.
- 1993 - The Danish Masonic Order celebrates its 250 year anniversary. That same year the peculiar Danish ritual (Ritus Hauniensis) is replaced with a very simple English rite in Guilt Freemasonry under the Danish Masonic Order.
- 2002 - Grand Lodge of Denmark is in a critical era in which there must be an influx of new members. The older members may not be equally responsible scientist obligations and Freemasonry which are essentially based on personal development, does Not seem to attract the new generation.
- 2010 - The 1. January the Lodge "Cruz del Sur nr. 18" (Southern Cross) is established in Copenhagen under the Grand Lodge of Denmark. The Lodge members are Danish and Swedish men speaking the Spanish language. The Lodge, as the only Lodge under the Grand Lodge of Denmark, is allowed to use the Blue Degrees from Scottish Rite. The officers of the new Lodge, comes from a division of the Lodge "De Tre Hamre nr. 15" (The Three Hammers)
- Storlogen af Danmark http://www.storlogen-af-danmark.dk/
- De Tre Hamre, Copenhagen http://www.logende3hamre.dk/
- Adoniram http://www.storlogen-af-danmark.dk/Adoniram/index.html
- Zerubbabel Ad Lucem Scientiae Nr. 1 http://www.storlogen-af-danmark.dk/RA/Forside.htm
- Wikipedia i danske (Danish)"Ritus_Hauniensis" http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ritus_Hauniensis